Unix/Linux : Quick Command Reference

Juste pour les utilisateurs des OS Unix/Linux, voici un PDF qui devrait vous être utile au quotidien :

http://fosswire.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/fwunixref.pdf

 

Juste au cas où, je me fais une petite version textuelle :

File Commands :

ls – directory listing

ls -al – formatted listing with hidden files

cd dir – change directory to dir

cd – change to home

pwd – show current directory

mkdir dir – create a directory dir

rm file – delete file

rm -r dir – delete directory dir

rm -f file – force remove file

rm -rf dir – force remove directory dir *

cp file1 file2 – copy file1 to file2

cp -r dir1 dir2 – copy dir1 to dir2; create dir2 if it

doesn’t exist

mv file1 file2 – rename or move file1 to file2

if file2 is an existing directory, moves file1 into

directory file2

ln -s file link – create symbolic link link to file

touch file – create or update file

cat > file – places standard input into file

more file – output the contents of file

head file – output the first 10 lines of file

tail file – output the last 10 lines of file

tail -f file – output the contents of file as it

grows, starting with the last 10 lines

 

Process Management :

ps – display your currently active processes

top – display all running processes

kill pid – kill process id pid

killall proc – kill all processes named proc *

bg – lists stopped or background jobs; resume a

stopped job in the background

fg – brings the most recent job to foreground

fg n – brings job n to the foreground

 

File Permissions :

chmod octal file – change the permissions of file

to octal, which can be found separately for user,

group, and world by adding:

● 4 – read (r)

● 2 – write (w)

● 1 – execute (x)

Examples:

chmod 777 – read, write, execute for all

chmod 755 – rwx for owner, rx for group and world

For more options, see man chmod.

 

SSH :

ssh user@host – connect to host as user

ssh -p port user@host – connect to host on port

port as user

ssh-copy-id user@host – add your key to host for

user to enable a keyed or passwordless login

 

Searching :

grep pattern files – search for pattern in files

grep -r pattern dir – search recursively for

pattern in dir

command | grep pattern – search for pattern in the

output of command

locate file – find all instances of file

 

System Info :

date – show the current date and time

cal – show this month’s calendar

uptime – show current uptime

w – display who is online

whoami – who you are logged in as

finger user – display information about user

uname -a – show kernel information

cat /proc/cpuinfo – cpu information

cat /proc/meminfo – memory information

man command – show the manual for command

df – show disk usage

du – show directory space usage

free – show memory and swap usage

whereis app show possible locations of app

which app – show which app will be run by default

 

Compression :

tar cf file.tar files – create a tar named

file.tar containing files

tar xf file.tar – extract the files from file.tar

tar czf file.tar.gz files – create a tar with

Gzip compression

tar xzf file.tar.gz – extract a tar using Gzip

tar cjf file.tar.bz2 – create a tar with Bzip2

compression

tar xjf file.tar.bz2 – extract a tar using Bzip2

gzip file – compresses file and renames it to

file.gz

gzip -d file.gz – decompresses file.gz back to

file

 

Network :

ping host – ping host and output results

whois domain – get whois information for domain

dig domain – get DNS information for domain

dig -x host – reverse lookup host

wget file – download file

wget -c file – continue a stopped download

 

Installation :

Install from source:

./configure

make

make install

dpkg -i pkg.deb – install a package (Debian)

rpm -Uvh pkg.rpm – install a package (RPM)

 

Shortcuts :

Ctrl+C – halts the current command

Ctrl+Z – stops the current command, resume with

fg in the foreground or bg in the background

Ctrl+D – log out of current session, similar to exit

Ctrl+W – erases one word in the current line

Ctrl+U – erases the whole line

Ctrl+R – type to bring up a recent command

!! – repeats the last command

exit – log out of current session

 

Nota bene : * use with extreme caution.

 

Enjoy !!!

@+
rv.

PS: J’avais déjà fait un truc dans le même genre il y a quelques mois :

Comment écrire comme un grand sous Linux avec VI

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